Spain has a rich heritage of national parks, intending to protect areas representing different ecological systems considered of the highest importance.
The National Land and Sea Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia with 1,200 acres includes approximately 7,200 hectares of the sea islands of Cities, Ons and Onze, Sálvora, Cortegada, Malveiras, and other nearby islands.
There are beaches, dunes, cliffs, and rocks to find and the largest breeding colony of crested cormorant on land. In the surrounding sea life, numerous species of algae form a food source for many invertebrates.
Included in the mountains of the north of the peninsula is the Parque Nacional de Los Picos de Europa, the park with the largest area of more than 64,000 acres throughout the Autonomous Communities of Asturias, Cantabria, and Castilla y León, with beech, oak – and birch forests and the gems as the most characteristic animal: the Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido in an area of 15,608 hectares belonging to the Autonomous Community of Aragon in the heart of the mountains of the Pyrenees, where the Circo de Pineta can be found with hanging glaciers and deep gorges of Kars Prophetic Añisclo and Escuain, where many animals live in the typical Pyrenean fauna.
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The Parque Nacional de Tortes Aigües v Estanv de Sant Maurici in the Catalan Pyrenees, with its 10,000 acres, is a fantastic example of a Pyrenean mountain range in the central part with turbulent water, lakes, and cliffs overgrown with pine trees.
En La Mancha, you can find an abundance of more or less dry gaps with seasonal flooding due to the complicated mechanism of the hydrological water balance of this area linking to the rivers Guadiana, the Cigüela, and the Záncara Riansares.
The Parque Nacional de las Tablas de Daimiel with an area of 2,000 hectares, is home to numerous waterfowl and is essential as a refuge, breeding, and resting area during migration. The Parque Nacional de Cabañeros, also located in the Autonomous Community of Castilla-La Mancha, covers 40,000 hectares and consists of a set of Paleozoic mountain ranges, interspersed with plains and low mountains.
Cabañeros is the best and most comprehensive example of an Iberian Mediterranean forest.
UNESCO declares Parque Nacional de Doñana in the south of Spain as a World Heritage site, the most beautiful nature reserve, one of the largest in the continent. With more than 50,000 hectares and an extensive protected area next to it, this natural reserve complex hydrological system of streams, channels, and swamps on the Guadalquivir River banks leads to sea with a coastline of 30 km.
Beaches, dunes are moving; bushes and forests offer protection to many species of birds of prey and swimming birds while providing the last refuge for endangered species like the lynx: the sultan grouse, the golden eagle, and horned coot.
In the provinces of Granada and Almeria is the Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada, with 86,000 hectares. Besides the characteristic vegetation of a high mountain, Mediterranean vegetation is also visible. It keeps the high located dessert cool, a subalpine steppe, conifer forests, and other vegetation types.
To the Balearic Islands belonging to Cabrera’s tiny archipelago is one of the hundreds of miniature worlds that give life and beauty to the Mediterranean. Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre del Archipelago de Cabrera, with 8,703 hectares of typical Mediterranean limestone with dense low vegetation.It’ss a great ecological value associated with the interests of present bird fauna (Pardela-gulls, cormorants, seagulls, birds of prey).
The Canary Islands are the most protected area of Spain, located in the biogeographic region known as Macaronesia and initially created by volcanic eruptions. Tenerife is the largest and most important of all the mountains, the mythical and extraordinary Teide, the highest point at 3,717 meters high.
This is the center of the Parque Nacional del Teide, with 13,571 hectares, with great height creating a whole range of different climates and vegetation. A paradise with native plants, animals, violets, reed-like herbs, kestrels, Shrikes, and Tizon lizards.
The Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente, located on hell island of La Palma, home to the oldest rocks of the island group (Basal Complex) and shows the water’s miracle.
It has the best examples of the Canary pine’s ecological system and a large number of native plants and birds. The park covers an area of 4,690 hectares.
On the island of Lanzarote is the Parque Nacional de Timanfaya with 5,107 hectares, a fire mountain with over three hundred craters, created during several outbursts, an excellent example of the volcanic nature of the islands.
This park is trendy because of the multitude of colors, the vegetated “island” and some fauna representatives, like the Haria lizard, vulture, and Alimoche Pardela-gull.
The Parque Nacional de Garajonay on the island of La Gomera extends over an area of 3,984 hectares. This park has been granted the title of UNESCO World Heritage.
Here can be found a valuable laurel forest that formed millions of years ago the vegetation of the Mediterranean and North Africa, with one of the forest associated wildlife such as native birds species (Rabiche, Turque) and insects.